The multifaceted richness of Theile's compositional artistry is especially reflected in his 'St. Matthew Passion' published in Lubeck in 1673. In it, elements of the traditional church style are combined with progressive techniques of dramatic narration and meditative reflection in song. In their subtle emotionality, expressed both in the leading of the voice parts and in the design of the instrumental ritornellos, the arias and canzonettas invite listeners to engage in personal, highly emotional contemplation of the Biblical events, very much in the spirit of the Pietistic currents that were taking shape. While most listeners will be familiar with the accompaniment of the words of Christ by stringed instruments from the passions of J.S Bach, the accompaniment of the Evangelist's narrative with gambas in Theile's 'Passion' produces an entirely new, different effect.