The fourth studio album by the American singer and songwriter, originally released in March 1989. Madonna worked with Stephen Bray, Patrick Leonard, and Prince on the album while co-writing and co-producing all the songs. The album uses live instrumentation and incorporates elements of dance, funk, gospel, and soul into a more general pop style. Madonna drew from her Catholic upbringing, as seen on the album's title track, which was also released as its lead single. The lyrics deal with themes from Madonna's childhood and adolescence, such as the death of her mother in 'Promise to Try', the importance of family in 'Keep It Together', and her relationship with her father in 'Oh Father'. Madonna also preaches female empowerment in 'Express Yourself'.